Male reproduction

Understanding how the male reproductive system and how sperm is produced can sometimes help to achieve a successful pregnancy.


The major parts of the male reproductive system are the testicles, the epididymous, the prostate, the vas deferens and the urethra.

Sperm Production

Sperm are produced in the testes and migrate to the epididymous, where they mature and are stored. During sexual intercourse the sperm travel through the vas deferens and pass into the ejaculatory ducts where they are mixed with the white milky fluid that forms semen. The semen is then ejaculated out through the urethra and into the vaginal canal.

Sperm Structure

The structure of each sperm is important in achieving fertilisation.
The tail of a sperm propels it through the vaginal canal, into the uterus and the fallopian tube, where it can fertilise the egg. The shape of the sperm is also important, as it needs to penetrate the outer shell of the egg to inject its genetic material if it is to achieve fertilisation and create an embryo. If problems occur at any stage of this process, fertility could be affected.